Directory and Files

Directories and Files ## Directories
/etc/lvm                    - default lvm directory location
/etc/lvm/backup         - where the automatic backups go
/etc/lvm/cache          - persistent filter cache
/etc/lvm/archive        - where automatic archives go after a volume group change
/var/lock/lvm             - lock files to prevent metadata corruption

# Files
/etc/lvm/lvm.conf       - main lvm configuration file
$HOME/.lvm               - lvm history

Tools

Diagnostic lvmdump
lvmdump -d <dir>
dmsetup [info|ls|status]

Note: by default the lvmdump command creates a tar ball

Physical Volumes

Display

pvdisplay -v
pvs -v
pvs -a
pvs --segments (see the disk segments used)

pvs attributes are:
1. (a)llocatable
2. e(x)ported

Scanning pvscan -v

Note: scans for disks for non-LVM and LVM disks
adding pvcreate /dev/sdb1

## Create physical volume with specific UUID, used to recover volume groups (see miscellaneous section)
pvcreate --uuid <UUID> /dev/sdb1

Common Attributes that you may want to use:

-M2 create a LVM2 physical volume
removing pvremove /dev/sdb1
checking pvck -v /dev/sdb1

Note: check the consistency of the LVM metadata
change physical attributes

## do not allow allocation of extents on this drive, however the partition must be in a vg otherwise you get an error
pvchange -x n /dev/sdb1

Common Attributes that you may want to use:

--addtag add a tag
-x allowed to allocate extents
-u change the uuid

moving pvmove -v /dev/sdb2 /dev/sdb3

Note: moves any used extents from this volume to another volume, in readiness to remove that volume. However you cannot use this on mirrored volumes, you must convert back to non-mirror using "lvconvert -m 0"

Volume Groups

display vgdisplay -v
vgs -v
vgs -a -o +devices

vgs flags:
#PV - number of physical devices
#LV - number of configured volumes        

vgs attributes are:
1. permissions (r)|(w)
2. resi(z)eable
3. e(x)ported
4. (p)artial
5. allocation policy - (c)ontiguous, c(l)ing, (n)ormal, (a)nywhere, (i)nherited
6. (c)luster
scanning vgscan -v
creating

vgcreate VolData00 /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdb2 /dev/sdb3
vgcreate VolData00 /dev/sdb[123]

## Use 32MB extent size
vgcreate VolData00 -s 32 /dev/sdb1

Common Attributes that you may want to use:

-l  maximum logical volumes
-p maximum physical volumes
-s physical extent size (default is 4MB)
-A autobackup

extending vgextend VolData00 /dev/sdb3
reducing vgreduce VolData00 /dev/sdb3

vgreduce --removemissing --force VolData00
removing vgremove VolData00

Common Attributes that you may want to use:

-f force the removal of any logical volumes
checking vgck VolData00

Note: check the consistency of the LVM metadata
change volume attributes vgchange -a n VolData00

Common Attributes that you may want to use:

-a control availability of volumes within the group
-l  maximum logical volumes
-p maximum physical volumes
-s physical extent size (default is 4MB)
-x resizable yes or no (see VG status in vxdisplay)
renaming vgrename VolData00 Data_Vol_01

note: the volume group must not have any active logical volumes
converting metadata type vgconvert -M2 VolData00

Note: vgconvert allows you to convert from one type of metadata format to another for example from LVM1 to LVM2, LVM2 offers bigger capacity, clustering and mirroring
merging # the old volumes group will be merged into the new volume group
vgmerge New_Vol_Group Old_Vol_Group

Note: you must unmount any fielsystems and deactivate the vg that is being merged "vgchange -a n <vg>", then you can activiate it again afterwards "vgchange -a y <vg>", then perform a vgscan, dont forget to backup the configuration
spliting vgsplit Old_Vol_Group New_Vol_Group [physical volumes] [-n logical volume name]
importing vgimport VolData00

Common Attributes that you may want to use:

-a import all exported volume groups
exporting ## to see if a volume has already been export use "vgs" and look at the third attribute should be a x
vgexport VolData00

Common Attributes that you may want to use:

-a export all inactive volume groups
backing up

## Backup to default location (/etc/lvm/backup)
vgcfgbackup VolData00

# Backup to specific location
vgcfgbackup -f /var/backup/VolData00_bkup VolData00

# Backup to specific location all volume groups (notice the %s)
vgcfgbackup -f /var/backup/vg_backups_%s

Note: the backup is written in plain text and are by default located in /etc/lvm/backup

restoring vgcfgrestore -f /var/backup/VolData00_bkup VolData00

Common Attributes that you may want to use:

-l list backups of file
-f backup file
-M metadataype 1 or 2
cloning vgimportclone /dev/sdb1

Note: used to import and rename duplicated volume group
special files vgmknodes VolData00

Note: recreates volume group directory and logical volume special files in /dev

Logical Volumes

display

lvdisplay -v
lvdisplay --maps      display mirror volumes

lvs -v
lvs -a -o +devices

## lvs commands for mirror volumes
lvs -a -o +devices
lvs -a -o +seg_pe_ranges --segments

## Stripe size
lvs -v --segments
lvs -a -o +stripes,stripesize

## use complex command
lvs -a -o +devices,stripes,stripesize,seg_pe_ranges --segments

lvs attributes are:
1. volume type: (m)irrored, (M)irrored without initail sync, (o)rigin, (p)vmove, (s)napshot, invalid (S)napshot, (v)irtual, mirror (i)mage
                      mirror (I)mage out-of-sync, under (c)onversion
2. permissions: (w)rite, (r)ead-only
3. allocation policy - (c)ontiguous, c(l)ing, (n)ormal, (a)nywhere, (i)nherited
4. fixed (m)inor
5. state: (a)ctive, (s)uspended, (I)nvalid snapshot, invalid (S)uspended snapshot, mapped (d)evice present with-out tables,
             mapped device present with (i)nactive table
6. device (o)pen (mounted in other words)

scanning lvscan -v
lvmdiskscan
creating

## plain old volume
lvcreate -L 10M VolData00

## plain old volume but use extents, use 10 4MB extents (if extent size is 4MB)
lvcreate -l 10 VolData00

## plain old volume but with a specific name web01
lvcreate -L 10M -n web01 VolData00

## plain old volume but on a specific disk
lvcreate -L 10M VolData00 /dev/sdb1

## a striped volume called lvol1 (note the captial i for the stripe size), can use -l (extents) instead of -L
lvcreate -i 3 -L 24M -n lvol1 vg01

## Mirrored volume
lvcreate -L 10M -m1 -n data01 vg01

## Mirrored volume without a mirror log file
lvcreate -L 10M -m1 --mirrorlog core -n data01 vg01

Common Attributes that you may want to use:

-L size of the volume [kKmMgGtT]
-l number of extents
-C contiguous [y|n]
-i stripes
-I stripe size
-m mirrors
--mirrorlog
-n volume name

extending

lvextend -L 20M /dev/VolData00/vol01

Common Attributes that you may want to use:

-L size of the volume [kKmMgGtT]
-l number of extents
-C contiguous [y|n]
-i stripes
-I stripe size

Note: you can extend a ext2/ext3 filesystem using the "resize2fs" or "fsadm" command

fsadm resize /dev/VolData01/data01
resize2fs -p /dev/mapper/VolData01-data01 [size]

The -p option displays bars of progress while extendingthe filesystem

lvextend -l +100%FREE /dev/[VolGroup]/[volume]
reducing/resizing

lvreduce -L 5M /dev/VolData00/vol01
lvresize -L 5M /dev/VolData00/vol01

Note: rounding will occur when extending and reducing volumes to the next extent (4MB by default), you can use resize2fs or fsadm to shrink the filesystem

fsadm resize /dev/VolData01/data01 [size]
resize2fs -p /dev/mapper/VolData01-data01 [size]

removing lvremove /dev/VolData00/vol01
adding a mirror to a non-mirrored volume

lvconvert -m1 --mirrorlog core /dev/VolData00/vol01 /dev/sdb2

Note: you can also use the above command to remove a unwanted log

removing a mirror from a mirrored volume

lvconvert -m0 /dev/VolData00/vol01 /dev/sdb2

Note: the disk in the command is the one you want to remove

Mirror a volume that has stripes lvconvert --stripes 3 -m1 --mirrorlog core /dev/VolData00/data01 /dev/sdd1 /dev/sde1 /devsdf1
change volume attributes

lvchange -a n /dev/VolData00/vol01

Common Attributes that you may want to use:

-a availability
-C contiguous [y|n]

renaming lvrename /dev/VolData00/vol_old /dev/VolData00/vol_new
snapshotting lvcreate --size 100M --snapshot -name snap /dev/vg01/data01

Miscellaneous

Simulating a disk failure dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdb2 count=10
reparing a failed mirror no LVM corruption ## check volume, persume /dev/sdb2 has failed
lvs -a -o +devices

# remove the failed disk from the volume (if not already done so) , this will convert volume into a non-mirrored volume
vgreduce --removemissing --force VolData00

## replace the disk physically, remember to partion it with type 8e
fdisk /dev/sdb
........

## add new disk to LVM
pvcreate /dev/sdb2

## add the disk back into volume group
vgextend VolData00 /dev/sdb2

## mirror up the volume
lvconvert -m1 --mirrorlog core /dev/VolData00/vol02 /dev/sdb2
corrupt LVM metadata without replacing drive # attempt to bring the volume group online
vgchange -a y VolData00

# Restore the LVM configation
vgcfgrestore VolData00

# attempt to bring the volume grou online
vgchange -a y VolData00

# file system check
e2fsck /dev/VolData00/data01
corrupt LVM metadata but replacing the faulty disk

# attempt to bring the volume group online but you get UUID conflict errors make note of the UUID number
vgchange -a y VolData00
vgchange -a n VolData00

## sometimes it my only be a logical volume problem
lvchange -a y /dev/VolData00/web02
lvchange -a n /dev/Voldata00/web02

## replace the disk physically, remember to partion it with type 8e
fdisk /dev/sdb
........

# after replacing the faulty drive the disk must have the previuos UUID number or you can get it from /etc/lvm directory
pvcreate --uuid <previous UUID number taken from above command> /dev/sdb2

# Restore the LVM configation
vgcfgrestore VolData00

# attempt to bring the volume group online or logical volume
vgchange -a y VolData00
lvchange -a y /dev/VolData00/web02

# file system check
e2fsck /dev/VolData00/data01

Note: if you have backed the volume group configuration you can obtain the UUID number in the backup file by default located in /etc/lvm/backup or running "pvs -v"